The Phenomenon of the 19th Century Music Migrations in the Case of Artistic and Pedagogical Activities of Robert Tollinger (1859–1911)
In this paper, the phenomenon of the 19th century music migrations and cultural transfers is explained through a mapping study of the creative legacy of the Czech musician Robert Tollinger, whose manifold artistic activities can be traced along a trajectory stretching from Prague, Zagreb and Velika Kikinda, (Austro-Hungarian Empire) to Cetinje (Principality of Montenegro) and Šabac (Kingdom of Serbia). Robert Tollinger is certainly one of the most distinctive creative personalities among the Czech musicians who worked in the territory of today’s Serbia and Montenegro, in the 19th century.
Tollinger was a cellist, composer, conductor, educator and music writer who significantly contributed to the development and organization of musical life in the communities in which he worked. In many aspects of his activities, Tollinger played a pioneering role. As a choirmaster of singing societies, he had a major share in improving the quality of these ensembles, expanding their repertoire and organizing singing societies’ guest performances outside their places of residence. Of particular importance was his concert activity as a cellist and chamber musician. In his compositional output, Tollinger made relevant contributions in many fields. In addition to vocal music, the dominant field cultivated by Serbian composers of the time, he also devoted himself to writing instrumental works. In his piano miniatures, he made a notable step forward in comparison with the output of Serbian composers of the same period; he was also the first locally based composer to produce instructional piano literature for children. As a co-founder of the music magazine Gudalo, Tollinger made a significant contribution as a music writer.